Our heritage

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The core of our software has been developed in the past decade, mostly during two ESA and DLR funded grants[1],[2]. In this time, a complete SST (Space, Surveillance and Tracking) software, called Apollon, has been created, which can perform all relevant tasks, from initial and statistical orbit determination of arbitrary measurements (range,range rate, angular, GPS, …) over object and uncertainty propagation, catalogue build-up and catalogue maintenance up to conjunction and re-entry predictions. To additionally analyse the potential performance of SSA systems a complete overview of the main features of Apollon is given in Table 2. The classical approach to these kinds of software is that all data is kept at in a central database, with the different tools working and updating on this data.

Tool DesignationCapabilitiesMethods
NEPTUNE – Orbital propagator– Numerical propagation of orbits states and covariance
– Simulation of orbit manoeuvres
– Performing of re-entry campaigns
– OpenMP parallelization
– Variable Störmer-Cowell integration routine
Full force model
– EIGEN-GL04C geopotential
– NRLMSISE-00 atmospheric drag
– 3rd body perturbations
– solar radiation pressure
– Earth albedo
– solid and ocean tides
MWG – Measurement Generation
– Observation Generation
– Tracklet creation
– Definition of heterogenous sensor networks
– OpenMP parallelization
– Radar performance model
– Analytical and numerical propagation of large populations
SMART – Orbit Determination– Initial Orbit Determination (IOD)
– Statistical Orbit Determination (SOD)
– Gibbs, Herrick-Gibbs, GTDS – IOD
– Weighted Least Squares, Extended and Unscented Kalman Filter SOD
CAT – Analysis of catalogue performance– Sensor scheduling capability
– Database backend
– Evaluation of position and velocity errors
– Evaluation of covariance matrices
– Catalogue statistics
CAMP – Conjunction and pass prediction
– Conjunction prediction and analysis
– Screening of large populations
– Satellite pass prediction
– OpenMP parallelization
– Maximum collision probability algorithm
– Monte-Carlo approach
– Satellite-centred collisoin geometry (UVW)

[1] Contract No. 4000103850/11/D/JR (ESA/ESOC), 01.08.2011-31.08.2015. Network Partnering Initiative: Definition of Orbit State, Orbit Ephemerides and Orbit Covariance Formats. Performed at Institute of Space Systems, TU Braunschweig.

[2] Contract No. 50LZ1404 (DLR), 01.01.2014-31.05.2019. DLR-RSS – Entwicklung eines Radar System Simulators (Development of a Radar System Simulator). Institute of Space Systems, TU-Braunschweig.

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